Diagnostic features of the Kingdom Plantae[8]

  • Eukaryotic;
  •  Multicellular;
  •  Photosynthetic/autotrophic;
  •  Have cellulose cell walls;
  •  Non-motile;
  •  Have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll a and b;
  •  store carbohydrate as starch;
  •  reproduce sexually and asexually;
  •  Have vascular system or undeveloped vascular tissue;
  •  mainly terrestrial;
  •  some have true roots, leaves and roots;
  •  alteration of generations

Economic importance of kingdom plantae[6]

  • food for most organisms
  • can be used for medical use
  • manufacturing rubber
  • tourism attraction e.g botanical gardens
  • for timber
  • for experimental use
  • plants can be used to make fuel e.g fossil fuels

Diagnostic features of the kingdom Animaliae[8]

  •  Eukaryotic;
  •  Multicellular;
  •  Non photosynthetic;
  •  Heterotrophic;
  •  no cellulose cell walls;
  •  store carbohydrate as glycogen;
  •  no chlorophyll;
  •  motile;
  •  have nervous system (C.N.S);
  •  have endocrine system for homeostasis;
  •  reproduce sexually or asexually;
  •  body divided into head, abdomen and limbs;
  •  all have an alimentary canal ;
  •  bilateral symmetry except cnidarians and echinoderms;
  •  triploblastic except cnidarians;
  •  some are segmented e.g annelids and arthropods

Economic importance of kingdom animalia[6]

  • source of food
  • animal waste can be used for organic fertilizers
  • ivory maybe used for jewellery making
  • some animals can used for medical use
  • tourism
  • for experimental research
  • animaal hides(skins) can be used to make shoes from leather

Diagnostic features of the kingdom Prokaryotae[8]

  •  lack true nucleus;
  •  circular D.N.A lies free in the cytoplasm;
  •  unicellular;
  •  no membrane bound organelles;
  •  mesosomes for respiration (instead of mitochondria);
  •  have 70s ribosomes;
  •  cell walls of murein (peptidoglycan);
  •  average diameter 0.5-5 micrometres;
  •  reproduce asexually by binary fission

Economic importance of bacteria-prokaryotae [6]

  • for genetic engineering e.g can be used to form recombinant DNA
  • sewage treatment ie digestion of slag
  • used to clean oil spoilages esp in sea and oceans
  • used for nitrogen fixation
  • can be use for decomposition of substances

Diagnostic features of the Kingdom Fungi[6]

  • some are unicellular e.g yeast and some are multicellular e.g mushroom;
  •  non photosynthetic;
  •  heterotrophic/saprotrophic/parasitic/mutualistic;
  •  nutrition is absorptive-digestion takes place outside the body and nutrients are absorbed;
  •  cell walls made of chitin as the main fibrilar material;
  •  body is a mycelium a network of fine tubular filaments called hyphae growing from horizontal hyphae the stolon;
  •  end of hyphae bears sporangia which are a reproductive organ for spore formation;
  •  eukaryotic;
  •  store carbohydrate as glycogen;
  •  asexual reproduction by spore formation;
  •  non-motile

Economic importance of fungi[6]

  • yeast are used in bread production
  • used for medical purposes eg as an antibiotic(penicillin)
  • decomposition of sewage and organic material in the soil
  • production of alcohol for drinking and industry
  • experimental use esp for genetic investigations
  • food spoilage

Bacteria are members of the kingdom Prokaryota. Describe the main features of a bacterial cell. [8]

  •  DNA not surrounded by nuclear membrane / no nucleus;
  •  (prokaryote) DNA is circular;
  •  DNA not associated with histones; A naked DNA
  •  plasmids (may) be present;
  •  no (double) membrane-bound organelles; A no, mitochondria / chloroplasts
  •  no, ER / Golgi; A ribosomes not attached to membranes
  •  ribosomes,70S / 18 nm / smaller (than eukaryotic cells);
  •  cell wall made of, peptidoglycan / murein / amino sugars ;
  •  (usually) unicellular;
  •  0.5 to 5.0 µm diameter;
  •  (may) have, flagella / pili / capsule / slime layer

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