The use of recombinant DNA technology

in the synthesis of human insulin by bacteria

  • mRNA coding for insulin/isolate gene for human insulin;
  • from beta cells of islets of Langerhans/pancreas;
  • reference to reverse transcriptase;
  • to cDNA;
  • reference PCR/DNA polymerase/double strand;
  • reference sticky ends;
  • use of vector/virus/plasmid;
  • reference endonuclease/restriction enzymes;
  • to cut plasmid;
  • reference DNA ligase to join DNA;
  • inserted into suitable host cell/E.coli/bacteria;
  • reference method of insertion;
  • identification of modified bacteria;
  • reference growth/culture of engineered bacteria in fermenters

The gene coding for human insulin

Can be obtained and inserted into a plasmid vector.

  • obtain mRNA from β cells (of islets of Langerhans of pancreas) ;
  • reverse transcriptase ;
  • make (single-stranded) cDNA ;
  • DNA polymerase used to make cDNA double stranded ;
  • sticky ends created ;
  • (obtain) plasmids ;
  • cut with restriction, endonuclease/ enzyme ; A named e.g. EcoR1
  • ref. complementary sticky ends ;
  • cDNA / insulin gene, mixed with plasmid ;
  • DNA ligase ;
  • seals nicks in sugar-phosphate backbone ;

The advantages of treating diabetic

People with human insulin produced by gene technology.

  • it is identical to human insulin ;
  • (more) rapid response ;
  • no/ fewer, immune response/ side effects/allergic reactions ;
  • ref. to ethical/ moral/ religious, issues ;
  • cheaper to produce in large volume/ unlimited availability ;
  • less risk of, transmitting disease/infection ;
  • good for people who have developed tolerance to animal insulin ;

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