Describe whether health is more than simply the absence of a disease

  • complete physical, mental and social being
  • linked to happiness/fulfilling life
  • having a positive outlook in life
  • socially well adjusted
  • ability to undertake physical/mental tasks without too much difficulty
  • feeling good physically/physical fitness
  • need for a balanced diet
  • need of regular exercises/lack of exercises likely to suffer certain diseases
  • both diet and exercise prevent obesity – access to medical care


Outline the aspects that contribute towards good health

  • good health is complete physical, mental and social well being
  • to balanced diet
  • regular exercise/regular physical activity
  • which ensure body is in best condition
  • to combat disease
  • limit drug intake/alcohol intake/smoking
  • improving ability to cope with stress/other benefits of exercise – regular sleep/rest + reasons.



  • is a disorder or malfunction of the body leading to departure from good health.
  • it is usually a disorder of a specific tissue or organ due to a single cause
  • diseases are characterized by signs and symptoms that are physical, mental or both
  • symptoms give an indication of the nature of the disease
  • some diseases are acute and they last for a short time
  • some are chronic and the effects continue for months or years
  • many chronic diseases are extremely debilitating


Categories of diseases

  • there are different ways of classifying diseases
  • there are nine broad categories though some disease are classified into more than one category


Question: using named examples for each, explain what is meant by degenerative and inherited disease.


  • gradual decline in body functions
  • associated with characteristics of ageing
  • caused by deficiencies of nutrients during childhood
  • g. skeletal diseases/cardiovascular/cancers/Huntington‘s disease inherited
  • an inherited genetic fault
  • mutation
  • ref to mechanism of mutation
  • pattern of inheritance
  • g. cancer, PKU, cystic fibrosis physical
  • permanent or temporary damage to body parts
  • body parts damages
  • e.g. leprosy, multiple sclerosis, stroke



  • disorder occurring in brain cells
  • no/a sign of physical damage may appear to the brain
  • g. schizophrenia, claustrophobia, anxiety infectious
  • caused by pathogens which invade the body such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms, protoctists and insects (e.g. lice)
  • are also called communicable diseases because the pathogens can be transferred from person to person
  • g. TB, HIV, cholera, STIs deficiency
  • nutritional diseases
  • due to poor nutrition/inadequate diet
  • not passed to offspring
  • scurvy, kwashiorkor, obesity



  • people‘s health is put at risk by their own decisions regarding their behaviour
  • due to actions of an individual
  • g. lung cancer/CHD/liver cirrhosis/anorexia nervosa, attempted suicide social
  • due to social behaviour and living conditions
  • g. TB/cholera/infectious diseases , smoking related diseases



  • all diseases not caused by pathogens
  • no organism invasion
  • not transmitted from one person to another
  • g. deficiency disease, mental disease, night blindness


Epidemiology and patterns of diseases


  • a disease that suddenly spreads to affect many people e.g. cholera
  • an outbreak of disease in a population



  • an infectious disease which is always present in a population e.g. TB –    this describes diseases that are always in a population



  • a disease that spreads over a large area e.g. continent/worldwide
  • an outbreak of disease that occurs across the world or across continents.



  • the number of people in a population with a disease within any given time



  • number of new cases within a population occurring for a given time e.g. week/month/year



  • the study of patterns of disease and the various factors that affect the spread/distribution of the disease

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