Outline the need for energy in living organisms[6]

  • Anabolic reactions e.g growth.
  • Active transport of sustains against concentration gradient.
  • Phagocytosis, pinocytosis , exocytosis, endocytosis.
  • Electrical transmission of nerve impulse.
  • Mechanical, contraction of muscles.
  • Maintainace of temperature heat from respiration.
  • Bioluminescence.
  • Electrical discharge.

Explain the different energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein as respiratory substrates. [6]

  • idea of lipid > protein > carbohydrate ;
  • A lipid has more energy than either protein or carbohydrate
  •  comparative figures ; e.g. 39.4, 17.0 and 15.8
  •  kJ g-1 / per unit mass;
  •  more hydrogen atoms in molecule, more energy;
  •  lipid have more, hydrogen atoms / C-H bonds;
  •  (most) energy comes from oxidation of hydrogen to water;
  •  using reduced, NAD / FAD;
  •  in ETC;
  •  detail of ETC;
  • ATP production

Describe the structure and synthesis of ATP and its universal role as the energy currency in all living organisms.[8][z-j2017/2/11(b)]

  • nucleotide;
  •  adenine + ribose / pentose + three phosphates;
  • loss of phosphate leads to energy release / hydrolysis releases 30.5 kJ;
  •  ADP + Pi ↔ ATP (reversible reaction);
  •  synthesised during, glycolysis / Krebs cycle / substrate level phosphorylation ;
  •  synthesised, using electron carriers / oxidative phosphorylation /photophosphorylation
  •  in, mitochondria / chloroplasts;
  •  ATP synthase / ATP synthetase;
  •  chemiosmosis / description;
  •  used by cells as immediate energy donor;
  •  link between energy yielding and energy requiring reactions;
  •  active transport / muscle contraction / Calvin cycle / protein synthesis

Explain the role of ATP in active transport of ions and in named anabolic reactions.[6]

  •  maintenance of, constant / stable, internal environment;
  •  irrespective of changes in external environment ;
  •  negative feedback;
  •  receptor /appropriate named cell, detects change in, parameter / blood glucose concentration;
  •  (receptors are) beta / alpha , cells;
  •  in, Islets of Langerhans / pancreas;
  •  insulin / glucagon, released;
  •  action taken by effector / correct action described (liver / muscle, cell);


Libby Evans
December 20, 2023

Hi there,

We run an Instagram growth service, which increases your number of followers both safely and practically.

– We guarantee to gain you 300-1000+ followers per month.
– People follow you because they are interested in you, increasing likes, comments and interaction.
– All actions are made manually by our team. We do not use any ‘bots’.

The price is just $60 (USD) per month, and we can start immediately.

If you’d like to see some of our previous work, let me know, and we can discuss it further.

Kind Regards,


promethazine tegen concurrerende prijs in België
phenergan online kopen zonder recept vereist
phenergan bestellen zonder voorschrift: legaal en veilig
De phenergan is zonder recept te koop in Nederland
waar phenergan kopen zonder recept Waar
kan ik promethazine krijgen in Venezuela?
Koop promethazine online voor snelle verlichting
phenergan met of zonder medisch voorschrift promethazine bestellen online in Haarlem
phenergan beschikbaar voor vrije verkoop prijs van phenergan in een apotheek in Nederland
phenergan bestellen zonder voorschrift: veilig en legaal promethazine zonder doktersvoorschrift te krijgen
Hoe phenergan zonder recept te bestellen
phenergan bestellen zonder tussenkomst van een arts Beste prijs voor phenergan online
Waar phenergan zonder voorschrift te krijgen
phenergan online bestellen: veilig en vertrouwd in Nederland.
promethazine zonder recept online te bestellen


I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this website.

I’m hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well.

In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now 😉


Wow, fantastic weblog layout! How lengthy have you been blogging
for? you made blogging glance easy. The overall glance of your
web site is excellent, as well as the content material!

ceny cipro w Krakowie
April 12, 2024

If some one wants to be updated with hottest technologies after that he must
be pay a visit this web page and be up to date every day.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *