Outline the need for energy in living organisms[6]

  • Anabolic reactions e.g growth.
  • Active transport of sustains against concentration gradient.
  • Phagocytosis, pinocytosis , exocytosis, endocytosis.
  • Electrical transmission of nerve impulse.
  • Mechanical, contraction of muscles.
  • Maintainace of temperature heat from respiration.
  • Bioluminescence.
  • Electrical discharge.

Explain the different energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein as respiratory substrates. [6]

  • idea of lipid > protein > carbohydrate ;
  • A lipid has more energy than either protein or carbohydrate
  •  comparative figures ; e.g. 39.4, 17.0 and 15.8
  •  kJ g-1 / per unit mass;
  •  more hydrogen atoms in molecule, more energy;
  •  lipid have more, hydrogen atoms / C-H bonds;
  •  (most) energy comes from oxidation of hydrogen to water;
  •  using reduced, NAD / FAD;
  •  in ETC;
  •  detail of ETC;
  • ATP production

Describe the structure and synthesis of ATP and its universal role as the energy currency in all living organisms.[8][z-j2017/2/11(b)]

  • nucleotide;
  •  adenine + ribose / pentose + three phosphates;
  • loss of phosphate leads to energy release / hydrolysis releases 30.5 kJ;
  •  ADP + Pi ↔ ATP (reversible reaction);
  •  synthesised during, glycolysis / Krebs cycle / substrate level phosphorylation ;
  •  synthesised, using electron carriers / oxidative phosphorylation /photophosphorylation
  •  in, mitochondria / chloroplasts;
  •  ATP synthase / ATP synthetase;
  •  chemiosmosis / description;
  •  used by cells as immediate energy donor;
  •  link between energy yielding and energy requiring reactions;
  •  active transport / muscle contraction / Calvin cycle / protein synthesis

Explain the role of ATP in active transport of ions and in named anabolic reactions.[6]

  •  maintenance of, constant / stable, internal environment;
  •  irrespective of changes in external environment ;
  •  negative feedback;
  •  receptor /appropriate named cell, detects change in, parameter / blood glucose concentration;
  •  (receptors are) beta / alpha , cells;
  •  in, Islets of Langerhans / pancreas;
  •  insulin / glucagon, released;
  •  action taken by effector / correct action described (liver / muscle, cell);

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